HomeHealthMaine Is a Warning for America’s PFAS Future

Maine Is a Warning for America’s PFAS Future


Cordelia Saunders remembers 2021, the 12 months she and her husband, Nathan, discovered that they’d probably been consuming tainted water for greater than 30 years. A neighbor’s 20 peach timber had lastly matured that summer time, and perfect-looking peaches hung from their branches. Cordelia watched the fruit drop to the bottom and decay: Her neighbor didn’t dare eat it.

The Saunderses’ residence, in Fairfield, Maine, is in a quiet, secluded spot, 50 minutes from the drama of the rocky coast and an hour and quarter-hour from the very best snowboarding round. It’s additionally sitting atop a plume of poison.

For many years, sewage sludge was unfold on the corn fields surrounding their home, and on tons of of different fields throughout the state. That sludge is suspected to have been tainted with PFAS, a gaggle of artificial compounds that trigger a litany of illnesses, together with kidney and prostate cancers, fertility loss, and developmental problems. The Saunderses’ property is on one of the crucial contaminated roads in a state simply waking as much as the extent of an invisible disaster.

Onur Apul, an environmental engineer on the College of Maine and the top of its initiative to review PFAS options, instructed me that in his opinion, the US has seen “nothing as overwhelming, and nothing as common” because the PFAS disaster. Even the DDT disaster of the Nineteen Sixties doesn’t evaluate, he mentioned: DDT was used solely as an insecticide and could possibly be banned by banning that single use. PFAS are utilized in tons of of merchandise throughout industries and client sectors. Their practically 15,000 variations might help make pans nonstick, climbing garments and plumber’s tape waterproof, and dental floss slippery. They’re in efficiency materials on couches, waterproof mascara, tennis rackets, ski wax. Destroying them calls for large inputs of power: Their fluorine-carbon bond is the one most steady bond in natural chemistry.

“It’s a actuality for everybody; it’s only a matter of whether or not they find out about it,” Apul mentioned. As quickly as anyplace within the U.S. does look squarely at PFAS, it’ll discover the chemical substances lurking within the blood of its constituents—in a single report, 97 % of Individuals registered some degree—and maybe additionally of their water provide or farm soils. And extra should look: Yesterday the Biden administration issued the primary nationwide PFAS drinking-water requirements and gave public drinking-water techniques three years to start out monitoring them. The EPA expects 1000’s of these techniques to have PFAS ranges above the brand new requirements, and to take actions to deal with the contamination. Maine is one step forward in going through PFAS head-on—but additionally one step forward in understanding simply how arduous that’s.


Cordelia and Nathan each bear in mind the dump vehicles rumbling up the highway. They’d cease proper throughout the road yearly and disgorge a black slurry—fertilizer, the Saunderses assumed on the time, that posed no explicit trouble. Now they know that the state accepted spreading 32,900 cubic yards of sewage sludge—or greater than 2,000 dump-truck masses—inside 1 / 4 mile of their home, and that the sludge got here largely from a neighborhood paper firm. Now they surprise about that slurry.

Maine has an extended, proud historical past as a papermaking state and an extended, tortured historical past with the trade’s poisonous legacy, most notably from dioxin. Within the Nineteen Sixties, one other group of compounds—per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances, or PFAS—started for use within the papermaking course of. The chemical substances have been miracle staff: A small quantity of PFAS might make paper plates and meals containers each grease-proof and water resistant.

Then, within the ’80s, the state inspired spreading sewage sludge on fields as fertilizer, a seemingly good use of an in any other case cumbersome by-product of residing, arduous to handle in a landfill. In precept, human manure can sub in for animal manure with out a lot compromise. However in actuality, sludge typically incorporates a cocktail of chemical residues. “We focus them in sludge after which unfold them over the place we develop meals. The preliminary thought isn’t nice,” Apul instructed me. The Saunderses first discovered that the sludge-spreading had contaminated their water after the state discovered excessive PFAS ranges in milk from a dairy farm two miles away. Maine’s restrict for six sorts of PFAS was 20 components per trillion; state toxicologists discovered a lot within the Saunderses’ properly water that when Nathan labored out the typical of all of the exams taken in 2021, it got here to 14,800 components per trillion, he instructed me.

Nathan used to work as an engineer for Maine’s drinking-water-safety program, and he shortly pieced collectively the story of their road’s contamination and simply how unhealthy it was. After state researchers examined their blood, Nathan remembers, a health care provider instructed him that his ranges of 1 PFAS have been so excessive, that they had hit the utmost the take a look at might reliably report—2,000 micrograms per liter. To date, he’s wholesome, however he looks like he’s residing on borrowed time. Ailments associated to environmental exposures can take many years to emerge, and though research present that PFAS could degrade well being at a inhabitants degree, why some people fall unwell and others don’t isn’t all the time clear. Cordelia instructed me that the neighbor who wouldn’t eat the peaches is now on three medicines for top ldl cholesterol (which has been linked to PFAS), and that different neighbors have bladder or mind most cancers.

Cordelia’s PFAS blood ranges have been decrease than Nathan’s—however nonetheless excessive sufficient to make the Saunderses rethink the previous decade of their life. In 2010, when she was an in any other case wholesome and lively 50-year-old, Cordelia went into kidney failure; Nathan donated the kidney that now retains her physique going. Again then, her physician instructed her that her physique’s failure to suppress an an infection had probably brought about her kidney disaster. And PFAS publicity is linked with lowered immune response.

Since PFAS have been first detected on a dairy farm in 2016, Maine has been making an attempt to uncover the extent of the contamination. The state’s environmental division stored data of the sludge-spreading, and people data present that, over greater than two and a half many years, paper-product firms have been immediately liable for spreading greater than 500,000 cubic yards of waste, the Portland Press Herald has reported. Extra was routed by means of water-treatment amenities; the sludge unfold close to the Saunderses’ home got here from the Kennebec Sanitary Therapy District, which received a large portion of its waste from the close by paper-products producer, now owned by Huhtamaki, a Finland-based firm. As a result of all of us ingest some quantity of PFAS in our each day life, human wastewater may have excessive ranges of contamination.

Maine has been making an attempt to stem the impacts of the contamination too. The Saunderses and their neighbors all received whole-house filters put in, and the PFAS ranges of their water instantly turned undetectable. The state has initiated aid funds for farmers whose land has been poisoned by compounds which have infiltrated the milk and grain they’ve bought to their clients and eaten themselves for years. Nobody actually is aware of the extent of the well being issues linked to PFAS within the state.

The state did ban merchandise containing PFAS—it was the primary to take action—however the ban received’t go into impact till 2030, which to Cordelia looks as if a very long time to attend. She feels in her physique the value of contamination: The remedy that protects her transplanted kidney is inflicting her to lose her listening to in a single ear, and her bone density. At 64, she has actual bother strolling a mile. “When issues are out of your management, what are you going to do?” she instructed me. “We’re all going to die. I’m in all probability going to die earlier than I’d have.” However she nonetheless has to scrub the home and make dinner. She’s nonetheless alive to spend time together with her sons and her seven grandchildren. She likes to concentrate on that.

Nathan is much less equanimous about it. He’s suing the paper firms; the costs in opposition to a few of the authentic defendants have been dismissed, however the case in opposition to Huhtamaki stays open. (The corporate didn’t reply to a request for touch upon Nathan’s lawsuit, however in an announcement to The Atlantic, it mentioned it not deliberately provides PFAS to its manufacturing course of, and famous that “a number of” paper mills in Maine have used PFAS of their merchandise. “In Waterville, as in all areas, we adjust to all relevant environmental and product security legal guidelines and rules. We are going to proceed to be engaged to assist with the state’s inquiry as wanted,” the corporate wrote.)

Nathan’s is only one of tons of of comparable instances that authorized consultants count on to erupt from the brand new findings. Such instances would possibly sometime get folks like him recompense, however they received’t make the PFAS go away.


To date, different states have taken a unique method to PFAS. Virginia, for example, stored allowing sludge-spreading even after environmentalists had loudly raised considerations concerning the chemical substances’ impacts, although the state did start requiring industries to check for PFAS of their waste stream final 12 months. Alabama has reportedly rejected pleas by environmental teams to start testing for the compounds. As a result of Maine is the primary state to attempt to mitigate PFAS this totally, additionally it is the primary to confront PFAS’ explicit bind: What do you do with a pollutant you possibly can’t destroy? After Maine banned sludge-spreading in 2022, slurry started to pile up precariously on the state landfill. Casella Waste Programs, the landfill operator, first tried exporting it to Canadian provinces the place no legislation addressed PFAS in land-spread fertilizers. The vehicles went to Quebec, then New Brunswick, till pushback in each locations stopped the poisonous exports; now Casella Waste Programs says it’s quickly stabilizing its landfill by mixing sludge with dry waste. General, the sludge-management state of affairs, per a state report, stays “very difficult and unsure.”

Within the state’s northern reaches, PFAS contamination got here from a unique supply— Aqueous Movie Forming Foam, which the U.S. Air Power as soon as used to extinguish jet-fuel fires at Loring Air Power base and which depends on PFAS for its fire-suppressing energy. Lengthy after the bottom closed, the Mi’kmaq Nation acquired a part of the land; the water was undrinkable, and the soil was so stuffed with PFAS that state officers suggested the tribe to not eat the deer that grazed there. It’s successfully unusable land.

In 2019, the Mi’kmaq Nation partnered with the nonprofit Upland Grassroots to attempt to clear up the land utilizing hemp. Hemp vegetation have thick stems that may develop greater than 10 ft in a single season, theoretically the proper plant physique kind for hoovering up and squirreling away a number of toxic chemical substances. The outcomes of the primary take a look at run final 12 months have been disappointing: A most of two % of the PFAS was faraway from soil in essentially the most profitable space. Nonetheless, no higher know-how exists to do greater than this, Sara Nason, an environmental chemist who supplied scientific steering for the mission, instructed me. The plan is to proceed planting hemp; it’s higher than doing nothing, although the hemp will take many years to scrub the soil, and nobody is aware of precisely what to do with the chemical-loaded vegetation as soon as they’re harvested.

A number of labs throughout the nation are looking for a solution to unmake these chemical substances, utilizing foam fractionation, soil washing, mineralization, electron-beam radiation. David Hanigan, an environmental engineer on the College of Nevada at Reno, is learning whether or not burning PFAS at ultrahigh temperatures can break the carbon-fluorine bond fully. He as soon as thought that PFAS researchers have been out of their minds to be testing such wildly costly options, he instructed me. However he’s realized that PFAS are simply that powerful, and as a scientist, he thinks the unique producers of PFAS will need to have understood that. “It’s upsetting from an organic-chemistry standpoint,” he instructed me. Any chemist would have identified that these compounds would persist within the surroundings, he mentioned. Certainly, an investigation by The Intercept discovered that DuPont, among the many authentic producers of the compounds, did know, and for many years tried to obscure the harms the chemical substances posed, one thing the UN Human Rights Council additionally contends. DuPont has persistently denied wrongdoing, and not too long ago settled a lawsuit for $1.18 billion, serving to create a fund for public water districts to deal with PFAS contamination. (In an announcement to The Atlantic, a spokesperson for DuPont described the present firm’s historical past of company reorganization, and wrote that “to implicate DuPont de Nemours in these previous points ignores this company evolution.”)

Hanigan does assume this engineering drawback of PFAS can be solved, finally. “We will do it,” he mentioned. However he wonders what else we’d have been in a position to do with that quantity of human effort. And till chemists and engineers can undo PFAS, extra locations will begin to see that they’re caught in a cycle wherein these compounds transfer from water to soil to our bodies to water. A couple of states, equivalent to Connecticut, have rules in opposition to land-spreading sewage sludge; as a substitute, they incinerate it, probably at temperatures under what’s wanted to destroy PFAS’ robust bond. Most states haven’t any such prohibition. Michigan, one other state with a historical past of spreading sludge on farmland, has discovered PFAS in its beef. In Texas, farmers not too long ago sued a waste-treatment large alleging that it knew or ought to have identified that its sludge had PFAS in it.

The federal authorities’s new guidelines, although, will drive the nation as an entire to measure, then confront, the dimensions of our PFAS drawback. Just like the Saunderses, folks throughout the nation are more likely to quickly uncover that they’ve been consuming PFAS-contaminated water for years and start questioning what it has value them.



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